Debian+Nginx+PHP(FastCGI)+MySQL搭建LNMP伺服器(一版)

火星人 @ 2014-03-04 , reply:0


Debian+Nginx+PHP(FastCGI)+MySQL搭建LNMP伺服器(一版)

寫在最前:看了張宴的「搭建勝過Apache十倍的Web伺服器」系列文章全是基於redhat上的,所以,今天本人來教大家在Debian5.X上也來實現LNMP。本文基於張宴「Nginx0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建勝過Apache十倍的Web伺服器(第6版)」。後面也會不斷更新。因為這是Debian上的第一版,所以我就把自己的實現全過程記錄下來,這裡面包涵了一些排錯和我們常遇到的問題,希望對大家後面的學習有用,因為大家的系統環境可能不一樣,本次教程的實現過程是在一VPS(USA)上實現的。
本次教程所用的系統環境:
cat /proc/version  
Linux version 2.6.18-128.2.1.el5.028stab064.4 (root@rhel5-64-build) (gcc version 4.1.2 20070626 (Red Hat 4.1.2-14)) #1 SMP Mon Jul 27 12:45:01 MSD 2009
cat /etc/issue
Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 \n \l
uname -a
Linux QQ46659160.com 2.6.18-128.2.1.el5.028stab064.4 #1 SMP Mon Jul 27 12:45:01 MSD 2009 i686 GNU/Linux
Mem:    524800k
在進行安裝前,最先檢查一個,你的系統中是不是安裝了mysql apache和一些其它的我們不需要的軟體,如果有的話,就刪除掉吧!

用netstat -ntlp查檢一下啟動的哪些服務
我的系統中安裝了sendmail,我不需要,所以我就把它刪除
/etc/init.d/sendmail stop
/etc/init.d/apache2 stop
dpkg -l |grep sendmail
apt-get remove sendmail sendmail-base sendmail-bin sendmail-cf sendmail-doc
dpkg -l |grep sendmail
dpkg –force-all -P sendmail-base sendmail-bin sendmail-cf sendmail-doc
dpkg -l |grep mysql
apt-get remove libmysqlclient15off mysql-common
dpkg -l |grep mysql
dpkg –force-all -P libmysqlclient15off mysql-common
dpkg -l |grep apache
apt-get remove apache2 apache2-doc apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-utils apache2.2-common
dpkg -l |grep apache
dpkg –force-all -P apache2-doc apache2.2-common
這時候我的系統中就只有22埠是開放了,大家可以根據自己的需要來處理系統中的軟體。
好了,閑話就不多說了,下面就開始進行安裝。
一、安裝源碼編譯的環境
apt-get install build-essential
二、下載所需要的軟體
mkdir /root/soft
cd /root/soft
vim down.sh
內容如下:
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.34.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.13.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.13-fpm-0.5.13.diff.gz
wget http://mirrors.sohu.com/mysql/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.2-m2.tar.gz
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.01.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6/eaccelerator-0.9.6.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz
設置可執行許可權
chmod +x down.sh
開始下載
./down.sh
三、安裝PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI模式)
1、編譯安裝PHP 5.2.13所需的支持庫
tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local
make && make install
cd ../
tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure –enable-ltdl-install
make && make install
cd ..
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
註:這裡的順序有點不一樣
tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
2、編譯安裝MySQL 5.5.2-m2
mysql安裝前需要安裝 libncurses5-dev
apt-get install libncurses5-dev
否則就會出現下面的錯誤
checking for termcap functions library… configure: error: No curses/termcap library found
處理完上面的內容,下面就可以開始編譯mysql了
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.2-m2.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.5.2-m2/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ –enable-assembler –with-extra-charsets=complex –enable-thread-safe-client –with-big-tables –with-readline –with-ssl –with-embedded-server –enable-local-infile –with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../
①、創建MySQL資料庫存放目錄
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/
②、以mysql用戶帳號的身份建立數據表
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db –basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data –user=mysql
如果出現下面的情況,就是你的系統中的MY,CNF文件可能是有多個(一個是你系統已經幫你安裝好的,一個是自己編譯安裝的,但MYSQL調用的是你系統裡面的配置文件了),這時,你就要查看你的系統中是不是已經安裝了mysql-comman了?
Installing MySQL system tables…
100318 19:10:22 /usr/local/webserver/mysql/libexec/mysqld: unknown option 『–skip-bdb』
100318 19:10:22 Aborting
100318 19:10:22 /usr/local/webserver/mysql/libexec/mysqld: Shutdown complete
所以我們先來查詢一下看看
dpkg -l |grep mysql
會看到類似下面的兩個軟體,
mysql-common libmysqlclient15off
我們用下面的命令強制刪除(把配置文件也一同刪除)
dpkg –force-all -P mysql-common
dpkg –force-all -P libmysqlclient15off
③、創建my.cnf配置文件
vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf
內容如下

character-set-server = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120
skip-name-resolve
master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396
#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306
server-id = 1
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
#log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10

quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

④、創建管理MySQL資料庫的shell腳本
vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql
輸入以下內容(這裡的用戶名admin和密碼12345678接下來的步驟會創建) #!/bin/sh
mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="12345678"
function_start_mysql()
{
    printf "Starting MySQL…\n"
    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf "Stoping MySQL…\n"
    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf "Restarting MySQL…\n"
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 『bin/mysqld_safe』 | grep ${mysql_port} | awk 『{printf $2}』)
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 『libexec/mysqld』 | grep ${mysql_port} | awk 『{printf $2}』)
}
if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"
fi
⑤、賦予shell腳本可執行許可權
chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql ⑥、啟動MySQL
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start ⑦、設置MySql root用戶的密碼(記住,後面用到)
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 』123456789′ ⑧、通過命令行登錄管理MySQL伺服器(提示輸入密碼時,輸入剛才設置的密碼)
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock
這時候到mysql命令行中
⑨、輸入以下SQL語句,創建一個具有root許可權的用戶(admin)和密碼(12345678)
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 『admin』@'localhost』 IDENTIFIED BY 』12345678′;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 『admin』@』127.0.0.1′ IDENTIFIED BY 』12345678′;
exit
⑩、(可選)停止MySQL
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop
3、編譯安裝PHP(FastCGI模式)
我們先來看一下下面這兩個命令的作用
apt-cache search "freetype"
這個命令是在源中查找和freetype有關的所有軟體,然後再根據軟體包的描述,找你自己需要的軟體,然後就可以用下面的命令進行安裝
apt-get install libfreetype6-dev
當然是要根據錯誤提示來查找相關的軟體。
我們在編譯過程中,缺什麼,就補什麼,這個也算是一種解決問題的思路。希望能給大家帶來點幫助!
下面也是同樣的道理,我就簡寫了。tar zxvf php-5.2.13.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.13-fpm-0.5.13.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.13 -p1
cd php-5.2.13/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc –with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config –with-iconv-dir=/usr/local –with-freetype-dir –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-zlib –with-libxml-dir=/usr –enable-xml –disable-rpath –enable-discard-path –enable-safe-mode –enable-bcmath –enable-shmop –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –with-curl –with-curlwrappers –enable-mbregex –enable-fastcgi –enable-fpm –enable-force-cgi-redirect –enable-mbstring –with-mcrypt –with-gd –enable-gd-native-ttf –with-openssl –with-mhash –enable-pcntl –enable-sockets –with-ldap –with-ldap-sasl –with-xmlrpc –enable-zip –enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS=』-liconv』
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
如果出現下面的錯誤提示
checking for xml2-config… no
checking for xml-config… no
configure: error: XML configuration could not be found
安裝
apt-get install libxml2-dev
出現
configure: error: Cannot find OpenSSL』s <evp.h>
安裝
apt-get install libssl-dev
出現
configure: error: Please reinstall the libcurl distribution –
    easy.h should be in <curl-dir>/include/curl/
安裝
apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev
出現
configure: error: libjpeg.(a|so) not found.
安裝
apt-get install libjpeg62-dev
出現
configure: error: libpng.(a|so) not found.
安裝
apt-get install libpng12-dev
出現
configure: error: freetype.h not found.
安裝
apt-get install libfreetype6-dev
出現
configure: error: sasl.h not found!
安裝
apt-get install libsasl2-dev
4、編譯安裝PHP5擴展模塊
在這一步中,我們需要安裝autoconf這個軟體包
apt-get install autoconf
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ../
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ../
tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config –with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make && make install
cd ../
安裝 ImageMagick的時候make會出現
/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lperl
這時候就要安裝
apt-get install libperl-dev
tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ../
5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:  
查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的
extension_dir = "./"
修改為
extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
並在此行后增加以下幾行,然後保存:
extension = "memcache.so"
extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
extension = "imagick.so"
再查找
output_buffering = Off
修改為
output_buffering = On
自動修改:
sed -i 『s#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#』 /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 『s#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#』 /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息

zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"
7、創建www用戶和組,以及供debian.freeopens.com虛擬主機使用的目錄
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www
8、創建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是為PHP打的一個FastCGI管理補丁,可以平滑變更php.ini配置而無需重啟php-cgi)
在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目錄中創建php-fpm.conf文件
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
內容如下 <?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>
  All relative paths in this config are relative to php』s install prefix
  <section name="global_options">
    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>
    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>
    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>
    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS …
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>
    … in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator』s shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>
    Time limit on waiting child』s reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>
    Set to 『no』 to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>
  </section>
  <workers>
    <section name="pool">
      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>
      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 『ip.ad.re.ss:port』 or just 『port』 or 『/path/to/unix/socket』
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>
      <value name="listen_options">
        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>
        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>
      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>
      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>
      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>
      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">
        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 『static』 and 『apache-like』
        <value name="style">static</value>
        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>
        Settings group for 『apache-like』 pm style
        <value name="apache_like">
          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 『apache-like』 pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>
          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 『apache-like』 pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>
          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 『apache-like』 pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>
        </value>
      </value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 『max_execution_time』 ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      』0s』 means 『off』
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      』0s』 means 『off』
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>
      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>
      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>
      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>
      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>
      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>
      Redirect workers』 stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>
      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>
      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>
      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>
    </section>
  </workers>
</configuration>
9、啟動php-cgi進程,監聽127.0.0.1的9000埠,進程數為128(如果伺服器內存小於3GB,可以只開啟64個進程),用戶為www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
註:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm還有其他參數,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重啟php-cgi,重新載入配置文件使用reload。
如果出現下面的錯誤(這個錯誤是我在安裝過程中發現的,是內在不足導致的,在文章的結尾優化后,就不會有這樣的問題了,在這裡做個記錄,方便大家學習)
Starting php_fpm eAccelerator: Could not allocate 67108864 bytes, the maximum size the kernel allows is 33554432 bytes. Lower the amount of memory request or increase the limit in /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax.
PHP Warning:   Can not create shared memory area in Unknown on line 0
PHP Fatal error:  Unable to start eAccelerator module in Unknown on line 0
failed
四、安裝Nginx 0.8.34
1、安裝Nginx所需的pcre庫
tar zxvf pcre-8.01.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.01/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
2、安裝Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.34.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.34/
./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../
3、創建Nginx日誌目錄
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs
4、創建Nginx配置文件
①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
輸入以下內容
user  www www;
worker_processes 8;
error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;
pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;
events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}
http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;
  #charset  gb2312;
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;
  keepalive_timeout 60;
  tcp_nodelay on;
  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;
  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  blog.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/blog;
    #limit_conn   crawler  20;     
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }
    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }     
    log_format  access  『$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" 『
              『$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" 『
              『"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for』;
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    log_format  wwwlogs  『$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" 『
               『$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" 『
               『"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for』;
    access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
  }
  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.blog.s135.com;
    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}
②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建fcgi.conf文件
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf
輸入以下內容
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;
5、啟動Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
如果出現下面的錯誤
usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
安裝
apt-get install libpcre3-dev
五、配置開機自動啟動Nginx + PHP + Mysql
vi /etc/rc.local
把下面的內容增加到exit 0的上面
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
六、優化Linux內核參數
vi /etc/sysctl.conf
在末尾增加以下內容
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800
#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535
使配置立即生效
/sbin/sysctl -p
七、相關軟體的重新啟動
如果說你改了nginx的配置文件,就要用下面的命令,使配置生效
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t   檢查參數
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`   平滑重啟
如果說你改了php.ini就要用下面的命令,使配置生效
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm reload 重新載入 mysql資料庫重新啟動
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql restart
八、每天定時切割Nginx日誌
1、創建腳本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
輸入以下內容
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00
# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"
mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`
2、設置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx訪問日誌 crontab -e
增加以下內容
00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
九、在小內存伺服器上的配置優化
1、Nginx  的主配置文件(nginx.conf)優化
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
根據下面的內容進行相應的修改和增加
#Nginx每個進程耗費10M~12M內存,這裡只開啟一個Nginx進程,節省內存。
worker_processes 1;
#對網頁文件、CSS、JS、XML等啟動gzip壓縮,減少數據傳輸量,提高訪問速度。
gzip on;
gzip_min_length  1k;
gzip_buffers     4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;
location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
   {
     #將Nginx與FastCGI的通信方式由TCP改為Unix Socket。TCP在高併發訪問下比Unix Socket穩定,但Unix Socket速度要比TCP快。
     fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
     #fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
     fastcgi_index index.php;
     include fcgi.conf;
   }
location ~ /read.php
   {
     #將Nginx與FastCGI的通信方式由TCP改為Unix Socket。TCP在高併發訪問下比Unix Socket穩定,但Unix Socket速度要比TCP快。
     fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
     #fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
     fastcgi_index index.php;
     include fcgi.conf;
   }
#博客的圖片較多,更改較少,將它們在瀏覽器本地緩存15天,可以提高下次打開我博客的頁面載入速度。
   location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
   {
     expires      15d;
   }
   #博客會載入很多JavaScript、CSS,將它們在瀏覽器本地緩存1天,訪問者在看完一篇文章或一頁后,再看另一篇文件或另一頁的內容,無需從伺服器再次下載相同的JavaScript、CSS,提高了頁面顯示速度。
   location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
   {
     expires      1d;
   }
2、PHP(FastCGI)的配置優化
php.ini 配置文件中關於eAcelerator的優化。只使用1M共享內存,刪除所有在最後3600秒內無法存取的腳本緩存,用磁碟輔助進行緩存。
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
根據內容增加或者修改
eaccelerator.shm_size="1"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.keys = "disk_only"
eaccelerator.sessions = "disk_only"
eaccelerator.content = "disk_only"
php-fpm.conf 的配置優化
vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
一是修改以下一行,將啟動的php-cgi進程數由原來的128個改為5個:
<value name="max_children">5</value>
二是修改以下一行,將TCP模式改為Unix Socket模式:
<value name="listen_address">/tmp/php-cgi.sock</value> 3、MySQL配置優化
vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf
根據自己的情況改吧

port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

prompt="(\u:s135:)[\d]> "
no-auto-rehash

user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql/data
open_files_limit    = 600
back_log = 20
max_connections = 100
max_connect_errors = 200
table_cache = 60
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 16M
sort_buffer_size = 128K
join_buffer_size = 128K
thread_cache_size = 10
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 0M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-UNCOMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 512K
max_heap_table_size = 32M
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data/slow.log
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data/error.log
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
server-id = 1
#log-bin = /usr/local/mysql/data/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_binlog_cache_size = 4M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 4M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 2M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 4M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

quick
max_allowed_packet = 16M
最後給個優化前後的對比圖
優化前
http://www.freeopens.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/1_thumb4.png http://www.freeopens.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/2_thumb4.png
優化后
http://www.freeopens.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/3_thumb4.png http://www.freeopens.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/4_thumb4.png   
本主參考文章:
http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/
http://blog.s135.com/post/375/

原文地址:http://www.freeopens.com/2010_03_855.html
《解決方案》

Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建勝過Apache十倍的Web伺服器

 [文章作者:張宴 本文版本:v6.3 最後修改:2010.07.26 轉載請註明原文鏈接:http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/]

  前言:本文是我撰寫的關於搭建「Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)」Web伺服器的第6篇文章。本系列文章作為國內最早詳細介紹 Nginx + PHP 安裝、配置、使用的資料之一,為推動 Nginx 在國內的發展產生了積極的作用。本文可能不斷更新小版本,請記住原文鏈接「http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/」,獲取最新內容。第6篇文章主要介紹了Nginx 0.8.x新的平滑重啟方式,將PHP升級到了5.2.14,修正了PEAR問題。另將MySQL 5.1.x升級到了5.5.x系列,配置文件變更較大。

  鏈接:《2007年9月的第1版》、《2007年12月的第2版》、《2008年6月的第3版》、《2008年8月的第4版》、《2009年5月的第5版》

  http://blog.s135.com/attachment/200806/nginx.png

  Nginx ("engine x") 是一個高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理伺服器,也是一個 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理伺服器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 為俄羅斯訪問量第二的 Rambler.ru 站點開發的,它已經在該站點運行超過三年了。Igor 將源代碼以類BSD許可證的形式發布。

  Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和穩定性,使得國內使用 Nginx 作為 Web 伺服器的網站也越來越多,其中包括新浪博客、新浪播客、網易新聞、騰訊網、搜狐博客等門戶網站頻道,六間房、56.com等視頻分享網站,Discuz!官方論壇、水木社區等知名論壇,盛大在線、金山逍遙網等網路遊戲網站,豆瓣、人人網、YUPOO相冊、金山愛詞霸、迅雷在線等新興Web 2.0網站。


  Nginx 的官方中文維基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs


  在高併發連接的情況下,Nginx是Apache伺服器不錯的替代品。Nginx同時也可以作為7層負載均衡伺服器來使用。根據我的測試結果,Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 可以承受3萬以上的併發連接數,相當於同等環境下Apache的10倍。

  根據我的經驗,4GB內存的伺服器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能處理3000個併發連接,因為它們將佔用3GB以上的內存,還得為系統預留1GB的內存。我曾經就有兩台Apache伺服器,因為在配置文件中設置的MaxClients為4000,當Apache併發連接數達到3800時,導致伺服器內存和Swap空間用滿而崩潰。

  而這台 Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 伺服器在3萬併發連接下,開啟的10個Nginx進程消耗150M內存(15M*10=150M),開啟的64個php-cgi進程消耗1280M內存(20M*64=1280M),加上系統自身消耗的內存,總共消耗不到2GB內存。如果伺服器內存較小,完全可以只開啟25個php-cgi進程,這樣php-cgi消耗的總內存數才500M。

  在3萬併發連接下,訪問Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 伺服器的PHP程序,仍然速度飛快。下圖為Nginx的狀態監控頁面,顯示的活動連接數為28457(關於Nginx的監控頁配置,會在本文接下來所給出的Nginx配置文件中寫明):

  http://blog.s135.com/attachment/200712/nginx_status.png

  我生產環境下的兩台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)伺服器,跑多個一般複雜的純PHP動態程序,單台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)伺服器跑PHP動態程序的處理能力已經超過「700次請求/秒」,相當於每天可以承受6000萬(700*60*60*24=60480000)的訪問量(更多信息見此),而伺服器的系統負載也不高:

  http://blog.s135.com/attachment/200803/nginx_php_la.gif

  2009年9月3日下午2:30,金山遊戲《劍俠情緣網路版叄》臨時維護1小時(http://kefu.xoyo.com/gonggao/jx3/2009-09-03/750438.shtml),大量玩家上官網,論壇、評論、客服等動態應用Nginx伺服器集群,每台伺服器的Nginx活動連接數達到2.8萬,這是筆者遇到的Nginx生產環境最高併發值。

  http://blog.s135.com/attachment/200909/nginx_c30k.png


  下面是用100個併發連接分別去壓生產環境中同一負載均衡器VIP下、提供相同服務的兩台伺服器,一台為Nginx,另一台為Apache,Nginx每秒處理的請求數是Apache的兩倍多,Nginx伺服器的系統負載、CPU使用率遠低於Apache:

  你可以將連接數開到10000~30000,去壓Nginx和Apache上的phpinfo.php,這是用瀏覽器訪問Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而訪問Apache伺服器的phpinfo.php,則是該頁無法顯示。4G內存的伺服器,即使再優化,Apache也很難在「webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php」的壓力情況下正常訪問,而調整參數優化后的Nginx可以。

  webbench 下載地址:http://blog.s135.com/post/288/

  注意:webbench 做壓力測試時,該軟體自身也會消耗CPU和內存資源,為了測試準確,請將 webbench 安裝在別的伺服器上。

  測試結果:##### Nginx + PHP #####
引用
# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec.
Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed.

top - 14:06:13 up 27 days,  2:25,  2 users,  load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51
Tasks: 287 total,   4 running, 283 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 49.9% us,  6.7% sy,  0.0% ni, 41.4% id,  1.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.8% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  2959468k used,  3270548k free,   635992k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,     3696k used,  2027912k free,  1231444k cached



  測試結果:#####  Apache + PHP #####
引用
# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=42184 pages/min, 31512914 bytes/sec.
Requests: 21092 susceed, 0 failed.

top - 14:06:20 up 27 days,  2:13,  2 users,  load average: 62.15, 26.36, 13.42
Tasks: 318 total,   7 running, 310 sleeping,   0 stopped,   1 zombie
Cpu(s): 80.4% us, 10.6% sy,  0.0% ni,  7.9% id,  0.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.9% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  3075948k used,  3154068k free,   379896k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,    12592k used,  2019016k free,  1117868k cached




  為什麼Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?這得益於Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6內核)和kqueue(freebsd)網路I/O模型,而Apache則使用的是傳統的select模型。目前Linux下能夠承受高併發訪問的Squid、Memcached都採用的是epoll網路I/O模型。

  處理大量的連接的讀寫,Apache所採用的select網路I/O模型非常低效。下面用一個比喻來解析Apache採用的select模型和Nginx採用的epoll模型進行之間的區別:

  假設你在大學讀書,住的宿舍樓有很多間房間,你的朋友要來找你。select版宿管大媽就會帶著你的朋友挨個房間去找,直到找到你為止。而epoll版宿管大媽會先記下每位同學的房間號,你的朋友來時,只需告訴你的朋友你住在哪個房間即可,不用親自帶著你的朋友滿大樓找人。如果來了10000個人,都要找自己住這棟樓的同學時,select版和epoll版宿管大媽,誰的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高併發伺服器中,輪詢I/O是最耗時間的操作之一,select和epoll的性能誰的性能更高,同樣十分明了。


  安裝步驟:
  (系統要求:Linux 2.6+ 內核,本文中的Linux操作系統為CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安裝成功)

  一、獲取相關開源程序:
  1、【適用CentOS操作系統】利用CentOS Linux系統自帶的yum命令安裝、升級所需的程序庫(RedHat等其他Linux發行版可從安裝光碟中找到這些程序庫的RPM包,進行安裝):
sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers


  2、【適用RedHat操作系統】RedHat等其他Linux發行版可從安裝光碟中找到這些程序庫的RPM包(事先可通過類似「rpm -qa | grep libjpeg」的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是「xxx-devel」不存在,需要安裝)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安裝,以下是RPM包下載網址:
  ①、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

  ②、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

  ③、RPM包搜索網站
  http://rpm.pbone.net/
  http://www.rpmfind.net/

  ④、RedHat AS4 系統環境,通常情況下缺少的支持包安裝:
  Ⅰ、i386 系統
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm

  Ⅱ、x86_64 系統
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm


  3、【適用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系統】下載程序源碼包:
  本文中提到的所有開源軟體為截止到2010年07月26日的最新穩定版。
  ①、從軟體的官方網站下載:
mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.14.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

  ②、從blog.s135.com下載(比較穩定,只允許在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通過Wget、Curl等命令下載以下軟體):
mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.14.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.3.0.tgz



  二、安裝PHP 5.2.14(FastCGI模式)
  1、編譯安裝PHP 5.2.14所需的支持庫:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../


  2、編譯安裝MySQL 5.5.3-m3
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.5.3-m3/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../


  附:以下為附加步驟,如果你想在這台伺服器上運行MySQL資料庫,則執行以下幾步。如果你只是希望讓PHP支持MySQL擴展庫,能夠連接其他伺服器上的MySQL資料庫,那麼,以下兩步無需執行。

  ①、創建MySQL資料庫存放目錄
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/


  ②、以mysql用戶帳號的身份建立數據表:
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data --user=mysql


  ③、創建my.cnf配置文件:
vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf

  輸入以下內容:
引用

character-set-server = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock


character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120

skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0

#log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10


quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M



  ④、創建管理MySQL資料庫的shell腳本:
vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

  輸入以下內容(這裡的用戶名admin和密碼12345678接下來的步驟會創建):
#!/bin/sh

mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="12345678"

function_start_mysql()
{
    printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}

if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"
fi

  ⑤、賦予shell腳本可執行許可權:
chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql


  ⑥、啟動MySQL:
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start


  ⑦、通過命令行登錄管理MySQL伺服器(提示輸入密碼時直接回車):
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock


  ⑧、輸入以下SQL語句,創建一個具有root許可權的用戶(admin)和密碼(12345678):
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';


  ⑨、(可選)停止MySQL:
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop


  3、編譯安裝PHP(FastCGI模式)
tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
cd php-5.2.14/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../


  4、編譯安裝PHP5擴展模塊
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../



  5、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
  修改為extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
  並在此行后增加以下幾行,然後保存:
  extension = "memcache.so"
  extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
  extension = "imagick.so"

  再查找output_buffering = Off
  修改為output_buffering = On

  再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
  修改為cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。

  自動修改:若嫌手工修改麻煩,可執行以下shell命令,自動完成對php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini


  6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

  按shift+g鍵跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
引用

zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"




  7、創建www用戶和組,以及供blog.s135.com和www.s135.com兩個虛擬主機使用的目錄:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www


  8、創建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是為PHP打的一個FastCGI管理補丁,可以平滑變更php.ini配置而無需重啟php-cgi):
  在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目錄中創建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

  輸入以下內容(如果您安裝 Nginx + PHP 用於程序調試,請將以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改為<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便顯示PHP錯誤信息,否則,Nginx 會報狀態為500的空白錯誤頁): <?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

  <section name="global_options">

    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

  </section>

  <workers>

    <section name="pool">

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

      <value name="listen_options">

        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>

      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>

      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>

      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">

        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

        </value>

      </value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>

    </section>

  </workers>

</configuration>
  9、啟動php-cgi進程,監聽127.0.0.1的9000埠,進程數為128(如果伺服器內存小於3GB,可以只開啟64個進程),用戶為www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

  註:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm還有其他參數,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重啟php-cgi,重新載入配置文件使用reload。


  三、安裝Nginx 0.8.46
  1、安裝Nginx所需的pcre庫:
tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.10/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../


  2、安裝Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.46/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../


  3、創建Nginx日誌目錄
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs


  4、創建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

  輸入以下內容:
引用
user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  #charset  gb2312;
      
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
      
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  blog.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;   
                             
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
   
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }   

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;

    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }

    log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
               '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
               '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
  }

  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.blog.s135.com;

    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}



  ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目錄中創建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

  輸入以下內容:
引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;



  5、啟動Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx


  四、配置開機自動啟動Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下內容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



  五、優化Linux內核參數
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下內容:
引用
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535



  使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p


  六、在不停止Nginx服務的情況下平滑變更Nginx配置
  1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,請執行以下命令檢查配置文件是否正確:
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

  如果屏幕顯示以下兩行信息,說明配置文件正確:
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

  2、平滑重啟:
  ①、對於Nginx 0.8.x版本,現在平滑重啟Nginx配置非常簡單,執行以下命令即可:
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload


  ②、對於Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重啟稍微麻煩一些,按照以下步驟進行即可。輸入以下命令查看Nginx主進程號:
ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'

  屏幕顯示的即為Nginx主進程號,例如:
  6302
  這時,執行以下命令即可使修改過的Nginx配置文件生效:
kill -HUP 6302

  或者無需這麼麻煩,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`


  七、編寫每天定時切割Nginx日誌的腳本
  1、創建腳本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

  輸入以下內容:
引用
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



  2、設置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx訪問日誌
crontab -e

  輸入以下內容:
引用
00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh




  本文若有小的修改,會第一時間在以下網址發布:
  http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/


  附:文章修改歷史

  ● 新建

  ● Nginx版本升級到0.8.35。

  ● Nginx版本升級到0.8.36。MySQL版本升級到5.5.3-m3,my.cnf配置文件中的thread_concurrency、master-connect-retry參數在新版本中不支持,已經註釋掉。

  ● Nginx版本升級到0.8.46。PHP版本升級到5.2.14。其他軟體也做了相應的升級。開啟php.ini中的cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。

  (全文完)
原文地址:http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/
《解決方案》

:sleepy:除了mysql和php,nginx等,其它全用sid源,apt-get 安裝了




[火星人 via ] Debian+Nginx+PHP(FastCGI)+MySQL搭建LNMP伺服器(一版)已經有298次圍觀

http://www.coctec.com/docs/service/show-post-16826.html